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Al basics(Hits:) 
Origin Author Add Time2015-04-27
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    Aluminum basics:
    First, what is aluminum
    
    Aluminum is a silvery white metal in the earth's crust after oxygen and silicon content in third place. The density of aluminum is small,
Only 34.61% iron, 30.33% copper, it is also known as light metal. Take the same volume of aluminum with steel, copper
Compare the weight of steel is 2.9 times that of aluminum, copper is 3.3 times the weight of aluminum, aluminum has become a variety of facilities and therefore light
Quantify the preferred metal.
    Aluminum is the world's steel production and consumption of non-ferrous metals are behind. It is commonly used in the production and living materials
And an important strategic materials. It has a light, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, plasticity (easy stretching, easy extension
Exhibition), corrosion (rust) and other fine features, so become mechanical, electric power, aviation, aerospace, shipbuilding
, An important raw material in automobile manufacturing, packaging, construction, transportation, daily necessities, real estate and other industries. I
We deal every day with the aluminum, home tableware, cookware, windows, appliances, office computers, telephones
, Stationery, furniture, factory machinery and equipment, travel, transport vehicles, all with aluminum-related. From everyday
Household items to submarines, aircraft and even rockets, spaceships, aluminum lurking everywhere. With modern science and technology
Changing surgery constant development of new industries and emerging, more and more widespread use of aluminum is required
Demand is growing rapidly, is playing an increasingly important role in the national economy. In our existing 124 industries
With 113 departments of aluminum products, accounting for 91%. In which 101 material production sectors, there are 96 departments Consumers
Consumption of aluminum smelting products or flat-rolled products, accounting for 95%. Now, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been able to replace wood, steel, plastic
And other materials, and its wide range of applications each side enough to make modern life is directly affected. Therefore,
Currently the world are in accordance with their terms, the positive development of the country's aluminum industry.
    
    Second, the characteristics of aluminum
    
    Excellent characteristics of aluminum and its alloys is the appearance of a good, light, machine processing, good physical and mechanical properties, corrosion
Eclipse, in many application areas is considered the most economical and practical.
    The density of aluminum is only 2.7103㎏ / m3, is about steel, copper or brass density of 1/3. Because aluminum timber
Light, so commonly used in the manufacture of automobiles, trains, subways, ships, aircraft, rockets, spacecraft and other sea and air transportation
Tools to reduce weight increase loading capacity. Aluminum in the military are also widely used.
    Under most environmental conditions, including air, water (or brine), petrochemical and chemical systems in many
, Aluminum can exhibit excellent corrosion resistance.
    The aluminum surface is highly reflective, radiant energy, visible light, heat and radiation waves can effectively be aluminum
Reflection, while the dark anodized surface by anodic oxidation may be reflective, and may be absorbent,
Aluminum polished over a wide wavelength range reflected excellent, thus having a variety of decorative purposes and reflex functional purpose
.
    Aluminum generally exhibits excellent electric conductivity, its conductivity can be of about two thirds of the copper, but because of its density
Only one-third of copper, and thus, the quality and so on and so on length of aluminum and copper compared to the conductivity of aluminum is about
Twice for copper and copper prices are low, low application cost, so often the choice of the power industry and the electronics industry. Eye
Before, certain aluminum alloys having a high resistivity also been developed, these alloys can be used as the high revolution Ju
Motor.
    High thermal conductivity of aluminum, after copper, aluminum thermal conductivity 3 times larger than that of iron, about 50% copper ~
60%. Although the optimal thermal conductivity of copper, but the manufacture of the same size piece of aluminum is much larger than the weight, the price is
A lot more expensive than aluminum. Thus, manufacturing is still the preferred aluminum radiator. The cost of manufacturing of aluminum heat exchangers, evaporators
Heating appliances, pots and pans, as well as the car's head and radiator are very favorable.
    Aluminum non-ferromagnetic, which in terms of the electrical and electronic industries is an extremely important feature.


    Aluminum is not spontaneous combustion, which involves handling industry or flammable materials contact is very important. Aluminum
Toxicity is very small, typically used in the manufacture of food and beverage containers filled. In recent years, aluminum foil in cigarettes, drugs
, Food packaging applications more widely, has become an important material for the packaging industry.
    Natural aluminum surface state has a pleasant appearance. It is soft, shiny, and for aesthetics, but also the
Color or texture pattern infected. In modern life, the aluminum has been widely used in the construction industry and general merchandise.
Aluminum also has good sound-absorbing properties, according to this feature, - ceiling some radio room, modern large building within
Some, such as the use of aluminum.
    Aluminum is very good plasticity. Pure aluminum is soft, not strength, with good ductility, can be pulled into filaments
And rolled into foil, with good machinability, a large number for wire, cable and radio industries in the manufacturing sector
And packaging industry. Adding a small amount of aluminum in certain metals, can greatly improve its performance. As adding a small amount of magnesium in aluminum
Copper, aluminum can be obtained tenacity; and if green copper-aluminum (aluminum-containing 4% to 15%) alloy with high strength
Corrosion resistance, hardness and low carbon steel close, and there is not easily darkened metallic luster, commonly used in the jewelry and construction
In machine parts and tools for manufacturing, and for pickling equipment and other sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid pick
Touch devices, can be made welding brush and clip handles, heavy gear and worm, metal molding, Machine Tool,
Tool spark does not occur, the non-magnetic chain, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, compressor blades, ship propellers
And anchors, etc. Magnesium in aluminum, thus forming a magnesium alloy, the hardness than that of pure magnesium and aluminum are many large and Paul
Leaving its lightweight characteristics, commonly used in the manufacture of aircraft fuselage, rocket rocket body, windows, landscaping home environment,
Manufacture of ships; add other metal components in aluminum, the aluminum can be turned into a variety of some of the aluminum alloy in
Even more than the strength of structural steel.
    Aluminum is also very easy to connect, use a variety of methods, including welding, resistance welding, brazing, soldering,
Bonding and mechanical methods such as riveting and bolted like.
    Compared with iron, aluminum not rust, extended service life. Therefore, aluminum has a very high recovery of the regeneration
Characteristics of aluminum and primary aluminum is almost no difference, which points to become the darling of environmentalists aluminum.
    
    Third, the main use of aluminum
    
    Due to the excellent physical properties, aluminum has been widely and should be in the national defense industry in various sectors
With. Aluminum as a lightweight structural materials, light weight, high strength, sea, land and air a variety of vehicles, especially fly
Aircraft, missiles, rockets, Sputnik, are using large amounts of aluminum, aluminum accounts for a supersonic aircraft
70% of its own weight, a missile aluminum accounted for more than 10% of its total weight; aluminum and aluminum alloy each
Types of vehicles, can reduce energy consumption, the energy they save far more than the energy consumed by aluminum; the construction workers
With aluminum doors and windows of houses and industry to do structural materials; aluminum manufacture solar collectors, energy savings; in electricity
Conveying respect, the amount of aluminum in the first place, 90% of high-voltage wires are made from aluminum; in the food industry,
From the sump to the cans, mostly made of aluminum as well as a beverage container; aluminum do refractory metals (such as molybdenum, etc.) is also
Reducing agent and do steelmaking deoxidizer, everyday life with pot, plates, spoons and other mostly made of aluminum.
    An aluminum compound such as aluminum hydroxide used to prepare aluminum, adsorbents, ion exchangers and mordant, may be
As the enamel, refractory materials, in medicine as the acid drugs, there is the treatment of ulcers and gastric acid and role
; Sodium aluminate commonly used in dyeing fabrics; anhydrous aluminum chloride is the oil industry and commonly used in organic synthesis catalyst;
Aluminum chloride hexahydrate useful for preparing deodorant, disinfectant safety; sodium aluminum hexafluoride (i.e. cryolite), in agriculture
The commonly used as insecticides; aluminum phosphide moisture or acid release highly toxic phosphine gas, can poison pests, agriculture
Barn used as a fumigant insecticide; aluminum sulfate used as filler paper; aluminum nitrate can be used to tanning and manufacturing incandescent
Filament, also be used as a mordant; aluminum silicate used especially for making glass, ceramics, paint pigments and paints, rubber and
Plastic filler; aka sucralfate sucralfate, scientific basic aluminum sucrose sulfate, knot it and pepsin
Together, direct inhibition of proteolytic activity, more lasting, and can form a protective film on the gastric mucosa strong
The protective effect and acid role in helping mucosal regeneration, promote ulcer healing, low toxicity, is a good stomach
Intestinal ulcers therapeutic agents.
    In recent years, it has developed a new aluminum-containing compounds, such as for laminate flooring wear layer three oxygen
Of aluminum, and an aluminum alkyl, nano-alumina and the like. With the development of science, people will be more and better use
Aluminum and compounds for the benefit of mankind. Fourth, aluminum production and processing of aluminum has four links in the production process constitutes a
A complete industrial chain: the aluminum ore mining - alumina preparation - aluminum smelting - aluminum production.
    In general, two tons of alumina to produce one ton of aluminum ore; two tons of alumina to produce one ton of aluminum.
    (A) alumina production methods have heretofore been proposed many aluminum containing ores or from other
The aluminum raw material of alumina extraction. Due to technical and economic aspects, some methods have been eliminated, there is
Some still in the experimental stage. Alumina production methods have been proposed can be summarized into four categories, namely alkaline, acid method,
PH combined method and thermal method. Currently only for large-scale industrial production of alkali.
    Bauxite is the world's most important bauxite resources, followed by alunite, nepheline, and clay. The world
Alumina industry, in addition to Russia, the use of nepheline alumina production part, almost all of the world's alumina are
With bauxite as raw materials.
    Bauxite is an ore mainly composed of gibbsite, a boehmite or a diaspore composed. Up to now
So far, our country can be used in the production of alumina bauxite resources as a whole diaspore bauxite.
    Changes bauxite alumina content is large, only about 30% of the low and high of up to 70%. Bauxite
In addition to the chemical composition contained aluminum, the major impurity is silicon oxide, iron oxide and titanium oxide. In addition, also containing
There are small or trace amounts of calcium carbonate and magnesium, potassium, sodium, vanadium, chromium, zinc, phosphorus, gallium, scandium, sulfur and other elements of
Compounds and organic matter. The content of gallium in bauxite which, though small, but in the alumina production process will gradually
Accumulation cycle mother liquor, which can be efficiently recovered, the main source of production of gallium.
    One of the main merits of the measure is the ratio of bauxite bauxite and alumina content silica content
Commonly known as the Al-Si ratio.
    When using alkaline alumina production, with an alkali (NaOH or Na2CO3) processing aluminum ore, the ore oxidation
Aluminum into a sodium aluminate solution. Iron ore, titanium and other impurities and most of the silicon is becoming insoluble compounds
Thereof. The insoluble residue (red mud) separated from the solution was discarded after washing or comprehensive treatment to recover
Wherein the useful components. Pure sodium aluminate solution to precipitate aluminum hydroxide can be decomposed, after separation, be washed
Calcined alumina products will be awarded. Decomposed liquor is recycled to process another batch of ore. Alkali oxide production
There Bayer aluminum, sintering and Bayer - sintering combined method other processes.
    Bayer Bayer chemist by Austria (K? J? Bayer) in a 1889 ~ 1892 invention from aluminum
Earth ore extraction of alumina. One hundred years in the technical aspects of the process have been many improvements, but the basic
Principle has not changed. To commemorate this great contribution to Bayer, which has been in use the name Bayer.
Bayer process includes two main processes. First, under certain conditions, self-alumina bauxite dissolution (
Alumina industry accustomed to using the term, that is leaching. Hereinafter the same) process, then the self-supersaturated aluminum hydroxide
Of sodium aluminate dissolved in water parse out the process, which is made of two patents Bayer. Bayer is the essence of wet
Metallurgical methods to extract alumina from bauxite. Bayer alumina production process, silicon minerals will
Causing loss of Al2O3 and Na2O.
    In the Bayer process, bauxite, after crushing, and lime, circulating liquor went into wet ground, made together
Georgia pulp. After preheating the pulp pre-desilication to digestion temperature dissolution. After the dissolution of the pulp and then through self-evaporation
After entering the dilution and cooling of red mud (solid residue after dissolution) of sedimentation separation processes. Since evaporation process produces
Secondary steam preheat for early pulp. After settling separation of red mud is washed into the red mud disposal, and isolated
Crude liquid (sodium aluminate solution containing solid seston, following the same) rushed leaf filter. The crude was filtered through the leaves to the vast
After partial float called semen. Semen into the decomposition process by seed decomposition of aluminum hydroxide. Decomposition of hydrogen
After separation of aluminum after grading and washing, as part of the return to the seed seed decomposition process, the other part of the calcined
Get alumina products. After the seed decomposition separated mother liquor by evaporation return dissolution decomposition process to form a closed cycle
Ring. After roasting aluminum hydroxide alumina.
    Different types of bauxite needed for dissolution conditions vary greatly. Gibbsite bauxite at 105 ℃ for
Under the conditions can be better dissolution, a boehmite bauxite at the dissolution temperature of 200 ℃ can have more
Fast dissolution rate, while a diaspore bauxite must be carried out at a temperature above the dissolution temperature of 240 ℃, the Code
Type industrial elution temperature 260 ℃. Dissolution time of not less than 60 minutes.
    Bayer process for handling high-Al-Si ratio of bauxite, the process is simple, high-quality products, and its economic effect than
Other methods as well. When used in the treatment of soluble gibbsite bauxite, the advantage is even more prominent. Currently, the whole
World production of alumina and aluminum hydroxide, 90% are produced by Bayer. Because Chinese bauxite resources
Specificity, about 50 percent of China's alumina is produced by the Bayer process.
    The Bayer process and sintering processes together both called joint production process. Combined method also
Combined method can be divided in parallel, in series hybrid combined method and combined method. What method of production of alumina, mainly
By grade bauxite (aluminum silicon that ore ratio) to decide. From the general technical and economic point of view, the ore
Al-Si ratio of about 3 sintering method is usually used; Al-Si ratio is higher than 10 ore can be used Bayer; when bauxite
The grade is between the two, treatment may be combined in order to give full play to the Bayer process and their excellent sintering
Points to good technical and economic indicators.
    The current global annual production of about 55 million tons of alumina, China's alumina production is about 6.8 million tons.


    (B) primary aluminum, aluminum alloy and aluminum production methods
    Currently the only way to the industrial production of primary aluminum is the Hall - Carvoeiro aluminum electrolytic method. Hall by the United States and France
Carvoeiro was invented in 1886. Hall - Carvoeiro aluminum electrolytic method is based on alumina as raw material, cryolite (Na3AlF6)
Flux composition for the electrolyte under the conditions of 950-970 ℃ electrolyte melt of oxygen by the electrolysis method
Decomposition of aluminum and aluminum oxide, aluminum in the form of a liquid phase to precipitate the carbon cathode, the oxygen in the carbon anode with a carbon dioxide gas
Form of escape. Per ton of aluminum, can produce 1.5 tons of carbon dioxide, integrated power around 15000kwh
.
    Industrial aluminum cell anodes can be divided into the side insert Soderberg, the plug anode Soderberg and prebaked anode tank
Three. Because Soderberg technology in the electrolysis process and high power consumption, and not conducive to the protection of the environment, so Soderberg
Cell technology is being gradually phased out. The current global annual production of about 28 million tons of primary aluminum, China's primary aluminum output of about
700 million tons.
    When necessary, the resulting aluminum electrolytic refining to obtain high purity aluminum. The current primary aluminum production methods
To give priority to melt with France. Because aluminum and its alloys have excellent workability, so by forging, casting, rolling,
Chong, pressure and other methods of production plate, strip, foil, tubes, wire and other profiles
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